怎樣向學校提出具體SEN支援要求?

主流學校可給予有社交、情緒及精神健康範疇需要(SEMH)學童的支援措施Supports that state schools provide to school age children on social, emotional and mental health needs (SEMH)

 

(本文提供中英雙語內容,方便家長用於與學校的溝通)
 
要協助有情緒困擾學童子女適應學校生活,家長要主動聯繫學校,有關流程可參考以下心泉網頁的介紹 https://hongkongwell.uk/zh/school-sen-flow/
 
To help children with emotional distress adapt to school life, parents should take the initiative to contact the school. For the process, please refer to the introduction on the Hong Kong Well UK’s website.
 
要了解學校正為SEN學生提供了哪些支援,必須到學校網頁看他們的特殊教育需要資訊報告(SEN information report),要求與校方會面時也可要求見特殊教育需要統籌老師 (SENCo)。
 
To find out what kind of support the school is providing for SEN students, please visit school website and look up their SEN Information Report. You can also ask to see the Special Educational Needs Coordinator while arranging for school visit.
 
按英國的特殊教育需要及殘疾學童處理指引(SEND Code-of-practice),學校可為有特殊教育需要學生設定不同的支援如個別學習計劃(Individual education plan)。若你的子女需要更多的支援,學校/家長也可向當區教育部門申請教育、健康及照顧計劃(EHCP),詳情可以參考英囼心泉網站 https://hongkongwell.uk/zh/what-is-ehcp/
 
According to the UK’s SEND code of practice, schools can set up different supports (such as individual education plans) for students with SEN. If your child needs more support, the school/parent can also apply to the local councils for the Education and Health Care Plan (EHCP). For details, please visit https://hongkongwell.uk/zh/what-is-ehcp/
在提供支援的過程中,家長的參與及意見相當重要,以下是一些香港及英國對有社交、情緒及精神健康範疇需要(SEMH)學童常見的支援措施,當然未必全部適合你的子女,事實上,學校也會因應資源、實際需要安排各類的調適,但此列表也可作為家長的參考,以促進溝通。
In the process of providing support, parental participation and opinions are very important. The followings are some common supports for students with social, emotional and mental health needs (SEMH) in Hong Kong and the UK. Of course, not all of them are suitable for your child. In fact, the school might also arrange various adjustments according to resources and needs. This list, however, can be used as a reference for parents in communication with schools.
 
1. 學校常規和校園生活 School’s routine and school life
1.1 出勤  Attendance
□ 彈性上學時間/另設上課時間表(例如:先安排學生參與自己可應付或較有興趣的課堂)
Flexible school time/individual class schedule (e.g: arrange the student to participate in classes that he or she can manage, or is more interested in)
□ 彈性處理遲到/缺席問題 
Flexibility in handling lateness/absences
 
1.2校園生活 School life
□ 當學生感到十分緊張和壓迫時,提供一個安全、寧靜的地方讓他稍作休息,減少受到刺激的機會
Provide a safe and quiet place to rest when the student feels tense and overwhelmed in order to reduce his or her anxiety.  
 
□ 安排學校人員在有需要時帶學生離開課室到休息室休息
When needed, assign a member of school staff to escort the student away from the classroom to an empty room to rest
 
□ 在小息及午膳時間提供特別的支援或活動
Provide special supports or activities at break and lunch time
 
□ 鼓勵學生參與學校的特別活動(例如:節日活動、表演),按需要給予彈性的安排或額外的支援
Encourage students to participate in special activities (e.g: festive events or performances); provide them with flexible arrangements or additional support according to their needs
 
1.3 特別座位安排 Special sitting arrangement
□ 坐近老師
Sit close to the teacher
□ 安排適當的朋輩坐在旁邊、安排適當的朋輩同坐於一組作討論
Arrange a suitable peer to sit next to him/her and place them in the same group
□ 安排學生坐較寧靜的座位,減少不必要的騷擾
Arrange a quieter area for the student to sit to minimise unnecessary disturbance
 
2. 課堂的調適/支援 Classroom Adjustment/Support
2.1 教學調適及策略 Teaching Adjustment and Strategies
□ 教學調適,例如: □內容深淺程度、□施教的先後次序
Teaching adjustment, such as: □The levels of the classwork, □The teaching plan
□ 運用多元化的教學技巧和互動的課堂活動 
Use a variety of teaching techniques and interactive classroom activities
□ 給予簡短的指示,在有需要時重覆指示或給予口頭或視覺提示
Give brief instructions, repeat instructions when needed or give verbal or visual clues
 
2.2 人手支援 Personal support
□ 安排教師/教學助理於課堂提供支援(約每日/星期/月 ____次、於_______科目進行),以1:1/小組形式作指導
Assign teachers/teaching assistants to provide support in the classroom (about ____ times a day/week/month, in _______ subjects), with 1:1/small group guidance
 
2.3 提升課堂參與 Improve classroom participation
2.3.1 課堂學習 Learning in the classroom
□留意學生的參與程度,容許學生按能力及狀態參與課堂活動(例如:小組討論),避免學生承受太大壓力
Observe the student’s level of participation, allow him/her to participate in classroom activities (e.g. group discussions) according to their abilities and status, and avoid students facing too much pressure
□ 訂立清晰的課堂流程,讓學生能預計自己將會做甚麼
Create clear classroom structure so students can anticipate what they might be doing
□ 提問前先給予預告,讓學生有充足的思考時間、指示或選項,以協助學生作出回應,容許學生以非語言方式回應提問,例如:點頭/搖頭,或 到黑板指出/寫出答案
Give advance notice when asking questions, so that the student has ample time for analysis, instructions or options to help him/her to respond; allow the student responding to questions in non-verbal ways, such as: nodding/shaking head, or pointing/writing the answer on the blackboard
□ 預先提供課堂的學習資料,例如:給予學生課本章節的學習重點
Provide learning materials in advance, for example: give the student key points of the chapter to learn. 
□ 為學生預備教材/工作紙,幫助組織資料,例如:視覺組織圖、寫作框等 Prepare textbooks/worksheets for students to help organise materials, e.g. visual organisation charts, writing boxes, etc.
□ 為學生預備筆記,以減少學生抄寫的需要,並減輕學生在記憶、專注及組織上的負荷
Prepare notes for students to reduce the need for them to copy and reduce the pressure on memory, concentration and organisation
□ 容許學生在課堂內使用額外的學習工具,例如:錄音筆、計時器、iPads、網上學習平台等 Allow students to use additional learning tools in the classroom, such as recorders, timers, iPads, e-learning platforms, etc.
□ 多採用網上學習平台或網上評估
Frequent use of online learning platforms or online assessments
 
2.3.2 堂課 Class
□ 在進行堂課時,老師或教學助理透過示範或指導,協助學生開展工作  During the class, teacher or teaching assistant help the student in his/her work through demonstration or guidance
□ 將課堂任務分拆成較細小部分,給予額外提示,例如:提示學生可參考書本上的某個章 節/部分、提供數學算式或給予例題
Divide classroom tasks into smaller parts and give additional suggestions, such as prompting students to refer to a chapter/section in a book, providing maths equations, or giving examples
□ 課堂寫作時給予寫作大綱或框架,協助學生構思段落內容,並提供相關詞彙作提示
Provide an outline or framework when writing in class; help the student to design content for paragraphs, and provide relevant vocabulary as a reminder
□ 按學生能力,減少字數/完成份量的要求
Reduce word count/quantity requirements according to the student’s ability
 
2.3.3 小組討論 Small group discussion
□ 小組討論時,安排合適的同學與學生同組討論
In group discussions, arrange suitable classmates to discuss with student in the same group
□ 按照學生的能力及狀態,協助學生在小組中參與討論
Assist the student to engage in group discussions according to their abilities and condition.
 
2.4 其他課堂安排 Other classroom arrangements
□ 延長轉堂期間的休息時間
Extend break time between classes
□ 容許學生在上堂期間要求小休時間(Time-out),並與學生制定相關的程序及小休地點,以協助其在小休後能提升學習效能
Allow the student to request time-out during class, and articulate relevant procedures and break locations for students to help them improve their learning effectiveness after a break
□ 安排朋輩支援,以便在上課時給予學習或情緒上的支援 Arrange peer support to provide academic or emotional support during class
 
3. 情緒/行為/社交/自理方面的支援 Supporting students’ emotional/behavioural/social and self-management
3.1 情緒 Emotion
□ 安排一個安全、寧靜地方讓學生在有需要時稍作休息
Provide a safe and quiet place where the students can take breaks
□ 安排學校人員在有需要時帶學生離開課室到休息室休息
Arrange school staff to accompany the students to leave classroom and go to the resting place when needed
□ 以正面的方式與學生溝通,避免他們感到被質疑或批評
Adopt positive communication to avoid making the students feel doubted or criticised 
□ 在學生處理一項可能會令其憂慮的工作前,透過適度的練習或預演,增强他的自信心,減少不安
Arrange appropriate amount of practices or rehearsals before the student work on tasks that he/she is worried about to increase their confidence and reduce uneasiness
□ 鼓勵學生面對焦慮的情況,訂立合理期望,以一致的方法讓學生逐步地接觸害怕的環境或事物
Encourage students to face anxiety-inducing situations, set reasonable goals and expectations, consistently allow the students to have gradual exposure to fearful situations or objects.
□ 發掘有助學生放鬆的活動(例如:協助班務、在圖書館工作等),適當時讓學生參與這些活動
Explore activities that may help the students relax (e.g. helping with classroom chores or working at the library, etc.). Allow them to participate in these activities at appropriate times.
 
3.2 行為 Behaviour
□ 安排簡單班務或合適的課外活動,以提升學生的自信心和能力感
Arrange simple class duties or appropriate extra-curricular activities (ECA) to enhance the students’ self-confidence and sense of competence
□ 與學生建立應對妄想或幻覺的策略
Formulate strategies to help the students to cope with hallucinations and delusions
□ 因應學生的高危行為如傷害自己或他人,制定相應的危機處理程序及措施
If the student exhibits behaviour that may harm himself/herself or other people, formulate corresponding crisis management procedures and measures
□ 因應學生離群行為或不同依附的需要,制定特別的支援措施
Formulate special supporting strategies in response to the students’ withdrawal or attachment behaviour.
 
3.3 社交 Social 
□ 教導學生復課後回應朋輩的提問
Offer the student guidance on how to respond to peers’ queries upon returning to school
□ 按需要為學生提供額外的照顧(例如:安排合適的朋輩陪伴、設朋友圈)
Provide additional care to the student according to his/her  needs (For example, pair up the students with a buddy and build social circles)
□ 教導學生溝通、聆聽、情緒表達及情緒調控等技巧以改善社交關係
Offer the student guidance on his or her skill in communication, listening, expressing their emotions and emotional adjustment to improve their social relationships
 
3.4 自理 Self-management
□ 協助學生訂立有規律的生活時間表,例如:定時作息、用膳和做運動
Assist the students in setting up a daily routine, such as schedules for breaks, meals, and exercises
□ 協助學生運用文件夾,以收集及整理筆記
Assist the students in using folders to file and organise notes
□ 協助學生運用工作日程簿或日曆,寫下完成功課的期限或出席活動的日子
Assist the students in using a work schedule or calendar to mark the deadlines for homework or dates for attending activities
 
4. 課堂以外的支援 Learning Support and Accommodation
□ 安排學習輔導 (形式:□個別/ □小組;科目:______;約每月 ____次)
Arrange learning support (format: individual/group; subject: ______ ; frequency: _____/month)
□ 安排功課輔導 (形式:□個別/ □小組;約每月 ____次)
Arrange homework support (format: individual/group; frequency: _____/month)
□ 安排學習技巧訓練,例如:閱讀、記憶、組織資料的技巧 (形式:□個別/ □小組 ;約每月 ____次)
Arrange training on learning skills, for example, reading, memory, organising information (format: individual/group; frequency: _____/month)
□ 安排由校內人員情緒輔導 (形式:□個別/ □小組;約每月 ____次),如社工/輔導員/ 輔導老師/ SENCO/情商支援教學助理(ELSA)/ 學校護士/其他_________定期會見學生,以便了解其需要及監察進展 
Arrange school staff to provide emotional support (format: individual/group; frequency: _____/month), such as social worker/Counsellor/Teacher/Special Educational Needs Co-ordinator (SENCO)/Emotional Literacy Support Assistant (ELSA)/School Nurse/Other ______, to meet the student regularly, to understand their needs and monitor the progress
 
5. 功課安排 Homework arrangements
□ 減少功課量
Reduce the amount of homework
□ 調節深淺程度
Adjust the levels of homework
□ 延長遞交期限或彈性處理交功課的日期
Extend deadlines or allow flexible deadline of homework
□ 容許多元化的作答方式(例如:口頭滙報代替文字報告)
Allow various formats of answers such as oral report instead of written one. 
□ 多採用網上學習平台的評估課業
Use online assessment
 
6. 測考調適 Exam adjustment
□ 安排在特別室進行測考/ 獨立考室應考
Arrange the student to conduct exam in special room or in room on his/her room 
□ 特別的座位安排
Special sitting arrangement
□ 延長考試時間
Extended exam duration
□ 在考試中設休息時間 
 
A break during exam
□ 豁免部份卷別/試題/校本評核
Exemption from some papers, question or school-based assessments
□聆聽部分獲較長及/或較多的停頓時段及口試獲延長考試時間
Extended or more pause during listening exam or extended time during oral exam
 
7. 安全評估 Safety assessment 
□ 較激烈的行為如學童對自己或他人造成傷害時的處理
Contingency plan when the student has radical behaviour that may cause himself/herself or others harms
□ 獨處的風險  The risk of the student being left unattended
 
8. 校外專業人員的支援 External support
□ 社工/ □輔導員/ □臨床心理學家/ □教育心理學家,定期會見學生,以便了解其需要及監察進展 (約每月____次)
Social worker/ □Counsellor/ □Clincial psychologist / □ Education psycholgist  meeting the student regularly to understand his/her need and to monitor the progress ( ___________ every month)
□或其他治療師如藝術、戲劇、遊戲治療等,定期會見學生,以便了解其需要及監察進展 (約每月____次)
Or other therapist including those on art, drama and play therapy to meet the student regularly to understand his/her need and to monitor the progress ( ___________ every month)
 
9. 家校及跨專業合作 Cooperation between school, parents and other professionals
□ 學校定期與家長及學生保持緊密溝通,了解其情況
Regular meeting between school and parents for a better communication and understanding
□ 學校定期召開個案/檢討會議 (約每年 ____次)
Regular school meeting to study or review the case ( _______ times every year)
□ 學校定期與相關專業人員 (□醫護人員 □社工 □教育心理學家 □ 其他:____________)聯絡,讓跨專業團隊了解學生的情況
Regular meeting of schools with relevant professionals (□medical staff  □ social worker □ education psychologist  □ other:____________),to ensure a good understanding of the student
 
資料來源: 
Understanding the risks
 
SEN Support Guidelines in school(P.37)
 
Teacher’s Resource Handbook on Understanding and Supporting Students with Mental illness (Chapter 2 & Appendix I)
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